Animal diseases found in swine vary in virulence, ease of transmission, mode of transmission, and host affinity. Diseases of concern are highly contagious diseases that cause significant morbidity or mortality. Animal diseases of concern are commonly categorized in the following manner:
A new or emerging disease is defined as a completely new disease, an old disease occurring in new places with new presentations, or a disease that is newly resistant to available treatments.
Foreign animal disease (FAD) is defined as an existing or emerging animal disease that poses a severe threat to animal health, the economy, and/or human health that is not usually present in the country. Foreign animal diseases of greatest concern could cause significant illness and/or death in animals or people or result in economic devastation and have international trade implications.
Reportable/notifiable diseases are outlined by the federal and provincial governments and are usually of significant importance to human or animal health or to the Canadian economy. Animal owners, veterinarians and laboratories are required to immediately report the presence of an animal that is contaminated or suspected of being contaminated with a federally reportable disease to a Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) veterinarian. Examples of reportable diseases in swine include African Swine Fever, Brucellosis, Classical Swine Fever, Foot and Mouth Disease, Rabies, Swine Vesicular Disease, Trichinellosis and Vesicular Stomatitis. There are some diseases that have similar clinical signs as federally reportable diseases but do not result in the same high level of morbidity and/or mortality (e.g., Senecavirus A and Foot and Mouth Disease). Diagnostic testing is required to confirm the specific disease. While all federally reported diseases must be reported to the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA), some diseases are also required to be reported/notified at the provincial level only.
In Ontario, examples of immediately notifiable diseases for swine include:
- All federally reportable and notifiable diseases (e.g., rabies, African Swine Fever)
- Disease caused by any toxic substance that is a threat to animal or human health
- Influenza (Influenza A virus)
- Salmonellosis (Salmonella sub-typed)
Other diseases like PRRS and TGE are periodically notifiable by labs; the full list of immediately and periodically reportable diseases for Ontario are available here: Notifiable hazards and reporting guidelines for laboratories and veterinarians under the Animal Health Act, 2009