Foreign Animal Disease (FAD) is an existing or emerging animal disease that poses a severe threat to animal health, the economy, and/or human health that is not usually present in the country. Foreign animal diseases of greatest concern could cause significant illness and/or death in animals or people or result in economic devastation and have international trade implications.
A new or emerging disease is defined as a completely new disease, an old disease occurring in new places with new presentations, or a disease that is newly resistant to available treatments.
Reportable diseases are outlined in the Health of Animals Act and Regulations and are usually of significant importance to human or animal health or to the Canadian economy. Animal owners, veterinarians and laboratories are required to immediately report the presence of an animal that is contaminated or suspected of being contaminated with one of these diseases to a Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) district veterinarian. Examples of reportable diseases in swine include: African swine fever, Brucellosis, Classical swine fever, Foot and mouth disease, Pseudorabies, Swine vesicular disease, Trichinellosis and Vesicular stomatitis.
In Ontario, immediately notifiable diseases include:
- All federally reportable and notifiable rabies
- Disease caused by any toxic substance that is a threat to animal or human health
- Influenza (Influenza A virus)
- Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS)
- Salmonellosis (Salmonella sub-typed)
- Swine dysentery (Brachyspira hyodysenteriae)
- Transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE)
There are some diseases that have similar clinical signs as reportable diseases but do not result in the same high level of morbidity and/or mortality. Diagnostic testing is required to confirm the specific disease. An example is Senecavirus A which resembles Foot and Mouth Disease.